Over the years, “sustainable development” has become one of the core concepts for the long-term development of all walks of life. Different industries have different understandings of sustainable development. The economy needs sustainable development, the environment needs sustainable development, and the society needs sustainable development… … STMicroelectronics (ST), one of the leaders in the semiconductor industry, has also taken the lead in its sustainable development strategy. Since its establishment in 1987, it has had a deep-rooted insistence on sustainable development.
“ST’s philosophy is to create technology in a sustainable way for a sustainable world, which has been embedded in our business model and corporate culture for over 30 years since our founding in 1987, our innovative technologies enable our customers to respond to a variety of environments and societies Challenges.” Regarding the commitment to sustainable development, Jean-Louis CHAMPSEIX, Vice President of STMicroelectronics and Head of Corporate Sustainability, gave a detailed sharing and interpretation at a recent media conference.
ST was one of the first five companies to join the Electronics Industry Citizenship Coalition (later renamed the Responsible Business Coalition) and signed the UN Global Compact in 2000. For the past 25 years, ST has maintained a long-term commitment to publicize its sustainability goals and annual performance results, which was recently updated through a sustainability charter. ST’s sustainable development strategy covers a wide range, which Jean-Louis CHAMPSEIX roughly boils down to three elements: creating technology for a sustainable world in a sustainable way, putting people first, and protecting the environment.
ST’s long-term sustainability commitment roadmap (Source: ST Company)
Creating technology for a sustainable world
As a leading company in the semiconductor industry, technology and product innovation is its nature, and it also nourishes the soil for sustainable development. ST creates technology for a sustainable world from three fronts: sustaining profitable growth through innovation and strong R&D investment; having a leading product portfolio to address the world’s sustainability challenges; and having a unique product lifecycle approach to designing and producing responsibly products, from responsibly sourced to end-of-life.
Behind the product innovation, ST’s more than 8,000 technical R&D and product designers hold about 18,000 patents, and the number of patents continues to rise with more than 500 new applications every year. At the same time, the investment of R&D funds provides conditions for the continuous innovation of products. Last year, the R&D funds invested by ST accounted for about 15% of the revenue, and it will increase efforts this year. ST has also set up a number of start-up cooperation centers, and there are plans for start-up companies to settle in ST venues. In addition, ST continues to strengthen its position as an innovation leader by establishing and maintaining R&D partnerships with more than 140 prestigious universities around the world.
ST accelerates society’s transition to green, safe and smart systems with its leading product portfolio. In the field of smart travel, ST provides silicon carbide devices for electric vehicles and charging stations, as well as advanced battery management products, etc., to help automakers produce safer, greener and more intelligent vehicles; in the field of power and energy, ST’s The STSPIN32 plug-and-play development board accelerates wireless power tool design, as well as high-power IPM modules for industrial and automotive, digital power controllers for interleaved boost PFC, and ultra-low-power STM32 microcontrollers and their The digital power ecosystem helps to improve energy efficiency in an all-round way and supports the application of renewable energy; in terms of smart cities, ST uses a large number of ultra-low-power product technologies, especially microcontrollers and ASIC chips, to enable cities, homes and Office just got smarter.
ST offers unique responsible products (Source: ST Company)
10 years ago, ST was the first in the semiconductor industry to propose that the product should be developed in accordance with the principle of sustainable development throughout the product life cycle, and publicly explain how to enable responsible procurement, product eco-design, and responsibility throughout the product life cycle. Responsible advanced manufacturing processes, strive for responsible use of products, and work with customers to address end-of-life issues. The goal is for at least 50% of new products to be certified by the Sustainable Technology Program and subject to external third-party audits; by 2025, responsible product revenue will triple from 2016; by 2027, responsible product revenue will be accounted for at least 33%. In 2020, more than 63% of ST’s new products were certified under the program.
The complete footprint of different types of products can be seen on the ST website (Image source: ST Company)
Over the years, all ST product designs have systematically achieved reporting transparency.
People-oriented means that ST is separated from its identity as a semiconductor company and has more social responsibility. This is a characteristic of ST that is different from other multinational companies. Involves employee health and safety, diversity and engagement.
ST believes that people should be put first, and people are also the driving force of sustainable development. For many years, ST has been leading the way in occupational safety. Since 2002, ST’s recordable accident rate has decreased by more than 85%. In 2020, the recordable accident rate of work-related injuries and occupational diseases dropped to a low level of 0.15% (ST’s 2025 target is to achieve a recordable accident rate of 0.15%, including contractors), and ST completed the task five years ahead of schedule. ST’s recordable accident rate will be even lower in 2021, thanks to the stringent measures taken on the behaviour of all personnel, including managers and employees.
Diversity and Inclusion at ST (Source: ST Company)
ST is a naturally diversified company. It was established in 1987 by the merger of Italian SGS company and French Thomson company. There are as many as 100 nationalities of all employees of the company, and no one nationality accounts for more than 25%. At the same time, the proportion of female employees in the company is 34%, and the equal pay rate of male and female employees is 99.6%, but ST is not satisfied with this data, but hopes that the equal pay rate of male and female employees in the entire company will reach 100%.
When it comes to employee experience, ST’s goal is to provide employees with the best possible work experience across all locations. ST performs true empowerment management while also committed to sustainable development. ST’s public report, which monitors and publishes employee engagement scores every year, shows that 81% of employees recommend ST as a good place to work, and 85% of employees are proud to work at ST.
When it comes to sustainable development, it is of course inseparable from environmental protection, and when it comes to environmental protection, we have to talk about the recent hot “dual carbon” plan. In response to the “double carbon” call, various companies have also released their own “double carbon” goals. For ST, which is ahead, carbon peaking has become history. At the end of 2020, ST also released carbon neutrality goals. Details, pledge to be carbon neutral by 2027.
ST carbon neutrality target (Image source: ST Company)
ST is a unique leader in the carbon reduction movement, with a 2027 commitment to carbon neutrality much earlier than required by local regulations, including direct emissions (PFC gases generated during semiconductor production, known as Scope 1 ”), indirect emissions (related to energy consumption, referred to as “Scope 2”), and transportation emissions (product transportation, business travel, employee commuting, referred to as “Scope 3”). Meet the 1.5°C warming limit advocated by SBTi by 2025. ST plans to have zero indirect emissions related to electricity by the end of 2026 and use 100% renewable energy; by 2027 it will become a semiconductor company using renewable energy.
In addition to direct and indirect emissions, ST Carbon Neutral also includes scope 3 (i.e. transportation emissions), which includes emissions from product transportation and employee travel and commuting. For example: ST will provide employees with electric mobility tools, add charging sockets in the parking lot, and support employees to use electric vehicles, but this will increase the annual electricity consumption. “Although adopting new technologies will put a huge burden on us, such as using more water, electricity and chemicals. But at the end of the day, we have significantly improved the quality of life of our customers. Even if it brought us more challenges , we also know how to solve challenges. We are committed to our long-term goal of facing energy challenges head-on, even with fluctuations in electricity and water usage,” said Jean-Louis CHAMPSEIX.
ST is not only a semiconductor company, but also an ultrapure water manufacturer. ST produces 30 billion liters of ultrapure water annually for production operations. Not only do we do circular economy ourselves, but we also cooperate with some major customers on circular economy, and take large-scale zero-waste actions on a global scale.
ST’s corporate environmental goals are at the forefront of the industry, not only in its own factories, but also in the wider supply chain, promoting greenhouse gas reduction and controlling the impact of climate change. In 2020, ST won out of more than 5,000 companies and was one of 277 CDP climate change A-list companies. This carbon disclosure project is a very strict carbon reduction standard.
Example of water resource management (Image source: ST Company)
In the pre-process manufacturing and post-process packaging and testing of semiconductors, water resources are inseparable. ST considers itself responsible for the water challenges in the regions where it operates, assesses the level of water stress at each facility, takes into account local water restrictions, ensures that all wastewater is properly treated before being discharged back into the natural environment, and continuously improves the water efficiency.
Committed to addressing the challenges of water scarcity and wastewater treatment, ST has reduced water consumption by 72% since 1994, and ST has set an ambitious target to reduce water consumption by 20% by 2025 compared to 2016. %.
Taking the Ang Mo Kio plant in Singapore as an example, ST is investing in upgrading the fluoride wastewater treatment system. In 2021, the recovery rate of fluoride wastewater will be 100%, compared to 30% before the upgrade. At the same time, ST is investing more in water purification and is testing a new method of purifying water with green grass, which collects all metals and particles, helps reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and effectively purifies water.
Industrial production inevitably generates industrial waste, and ST works with customers and partners to promote a circular economy and achieve zero waste. Before the epidemic, ST’s garbage recycling rate (waste reused, recycled or sent for recycling) reached 93%. Affected by the epidemic, some partners have encountered difficulties in recycling operations in the past two years. The recycling rate is only 88%, which is still a world leader. ST’s goal is to achieve 95% recycling rate by 2025.
Another goal of ST is zero waste. ST has established a factory in Shenzhen, China, working with customers who cannot be named for the time being, to achieve a very effective zero-waste approach. ST is currently rolling out this successful practice to its Calamba plant in Malaysia.
Adhere to the meaning of sustainable development
Since its inception, ST has adhered to the road of sustainable development, and ST has also truly felt the significance of sustainable development. Jean-Louis CHAMPSEIX believes that ST and its stakeholders are reaping the benefits of sustainable development.
One is to reduce multiple risks, including risks to employees, such as health, safety and even unemployment; reduce risk to customers in terms of resilience, reputation and supply; reduce risk to investors, strengthen the ability to execute long-term plans, and accelerate realization Sustainable growth; it also reduces risks for society as a whole, and mitigates environmental pollution and resource scarcity in the communities where it operates.
The second is the added value. On its own, sustainable development creates a lot of short-term and long-term added value, such as saving 6% to 10% of electricity bills, saving tens of millions of dollars per year. Since ST was founded, hundreds of millions of dollars have been saved in energy efficiency. From a customer perspective, the benefits of sustainability are threefold: (1) bring customers greater machine agility, resilience, and operational capabilities during crises; (2) bring innovation capabilities that bring them and their end customers Responsible products with added value; (3) Cooperate with customers to carry out advanced sustainable development actions.
Furthermore, sustainable development creates value for society itself. Jean-Louis CHAMPSEIX talked about how ST took some measures to help the community during the new crown epidemic and formed a virtuous circle. In the first week of the outbreak, ST sent out more than 80,000 masks and received an almost equal number of email thank-you letters from around the world. Later, 100,000 masks were ordered to protect ST employees, but about 101,123 masks were received in Italy. It was later learned that the operators and staff of ST’s Shenzhen factory had purchased different quantities of medical masks in the Shenzhen market and sent them to Italy. employees. Jean-Louis CHAMPSEIX said: “There are so many stories like this, they create a lot of virtuous circles. We help the community, the community helps our employee families, we help our employee families, and the employee families in turn help the community, in the long run. Look, it’s a virtuous cycle.”
Sustainability has been integrated into ST for 25 years. The COVID-19 pandemic has once again demonstrated the importance of sustainable development in improving business resilience and competitiveness. During this crisis, ST people who are at the heart of sustainable development have shown greater engagement, greater solidarity and greater productivity. At the same time, the epidemic has also raised the expectations of all stakeholders for sustainable development.
ST is confident about the future, “There are no insurmountable challenges in implementing a sustainability strategy, and we have the expertise and resources to implement it. When you are a trailblazer, you have to innovate, and there is no precedent to follow. .So, ST has innovated a lot and we are very confident that we have found a better solution than the stated goals,” concluded Jean-Louis CHAMPSEIX.
The latest report from market research firm Dell’Oro Group shows that capital expenditures for hyperscale cloud data centers are expected to grow by 20% in 2021. However, Dell’Oro expects the recovery in enterprise IT spending to be uneven, with small and medium-sized businesses largely in the doldrums in the market.
“We expect overall data center capital spending to return to strong single-digit percentage growth in 2021 as COVID-related headwinds ease. Growth is expected in key technology areas such as IT, networking and physical infrastructure, and benefit the entire ecosystem,” said Baron Fung, research director at Dell’Oro Group. “The top 10 or hyperscale cloud service providers are expected to outpace the growth of other segments, with spending driven by the deployment of Intel Ice Lake processor-based servers, the deployment of next-generation networks, and the expansion of new data center construction. ‘ he explained.
Additional highlights from this quarterly report on data center capital spending for the fourth quarter of 2020 include:
Global data center capital spending in 2020 was $187 billion, unchanged from the previous year.
Worldwide server shipments declined 4% year over year in the fourth quarter of 2020 due to cloud service digestion and a softening enterprise market.
Capital spending on enterprise data centers is expected to grow 6% in 2021.
“Gigabit network interface has the advantages of fast data transmission rate, convenient connection, and plug-and-play, which makes it widely used. With the development of and processors, the data communication rate in many applications exceeds the actual transmission rate of the Gigabit Ethernet port.
Gigabit network interface has the advantages of fast data transmission rate, convenient connection, and plug-and-play, which makes it widely used. With the development of and processors, the data communication rate in many applications exceeds the actual transmission rate of the Gigabit Ethernet port. For example, in A/D sampling, it is necessary to directly store the sampled data of A/D conversion. If the number of A/D conversion bits is 16 bits and the operation is at 100MHz, the actual data volume is 1.6Gbps. In order to achieve high-speed transmission, a higher transmission rate interface, such as PCIe or RapidIO interface, must be used. However, these interfaces do not have a plug-and-play function, and cannot be directly connected with many existing industrial equipment, which limits their application.
DSP (device) has a high operating frequency, and its internal hardware network MAC interface is integrated, and an external physical layer chip can easily realize Gigabit network communication. The multi-core DSP chip can be connected to multiple Gigabit Ethernet ports, so that it can be applied to high-speed data transmission occasions. This paper introduces an embedded dual-gigabit network interface based on the multi-core digital signal processor TMS320C6678, which realizes that a single chip connects two Gigabit network ports. These two network ports can transmit data independently or jointly. Actual data transfer rate.
1 C6678 and its structure
TMS320C6678 is an 8-core floating-point DSP in TI’s multi-core processors. The operating frequency of each core can reach 1.25GHz. Each core can provide 40GMAC fixed-point computing or 20GFLOP floating-point computing capability. A single chip can provide 320GMAC or 160GFLOP. Calculate ability. The on-chip structure of TMS320C6678 is shown in Figure 1.
Each core of TMS320C6678 has 32KB program, 32KB data and 512KB 2-level Cache storage space, and the chip has a 4MB shared SRAM. TMS320C6678 has a DDR3 controller interface, which can be externally connected to DDR3, and the direct addressing range reaches 8GB. TMS320C6678 is equipped with RapidIO, PCIe, F, SPI, I2C bus and other interfaces inside and outside the chip. These interfaces exchange data with each processor through an on-chip high-speed interconnect bus.
The on-chip devices related to the network are shown as the gray modules in the lower right corner of Figure 1. They mainly include two external SGMII interfaces, Ethernet switching and network switching modules, as well as security accelerators and packet accelerators for data management, which can quickly detect data. Check whether the protocol and the protocol follow the network standard, and discard the wrong data directly to reduce the burden on the CPU. In order to speed up the data exchange between the network and the CPU, the on-chip queue manager is used to manage functions such as buffering and distribution of network packets or frames. These data are all read and written using packet DMA, which does not require CPU participation.
Figure 1 Internal structure of TMS320C6678
Other on-chip devices of TMS320C6678 include modules such as PLL, emulation port, semaphore, power management and reset management. The PLL configures the working clock of the CPU and peripherals; the emulation port is used to connect the emulator to monitor the software operation; the semaphore realizes the control of the semaphore in the DSP/BIOS operating system; the power management realizes the control of the current and voltage of the entire chip ;Reset management configuration startup mode, hard reset for full startup, soft reset for partial startup.
2 88E1111 and its structure
There are many network physical layer chips, which are generally compatible with one or more interface standards such as MII, RMII, and SGMII. But TMS320C6678 only provides SGMII interface, so the physical layer chip connected with TMS320C6678 must have SGMII interface. This article uses two pieces of Marvell’s 88E1111 physical layer chip to connect the dual Gigabit network. The on-chip structure of the 88E1111 is shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2 Internal structure of 88E1111
The analog signal with modulated data sent by the network RJ45 interface is converted into a digital signal through A/D conversion, and then after equalization, shaping filtering and decoding in turn, it is transmitted to the MAC chip by the receiving unit to realize data reception. The data sent by the MAC is converted into an analog signal by D/A after being shaped and filtered and sent to the RJ45 interface. In order to reduce the bit error rate, the 88E1111 has modules such as phase-locked loop (PLL), automatic gain control (AGC), timing/phase control, echo cancellation, etc. These modules are all to improve the reliability of data transmission, in different environments or different Under external devices, high-speed and reliable communication is possible. The LED control module in Figure 2 realizes the light Display during data transmission, the MDIO module realizes link establishment and status monitoring, and the clock module provides the working clock.
3 Hardware Design
The hardware design mainly includes the interfaces of TMS320C6678 and two 88E1111, the interface of 88E1111 and RJ45, and the hardware configuration design of 88E1111.
The network module structure of TMS320C6678 is shown in Figure 3. A 3-port Ethernet switch is integrated in the chip, which is responsible for exchanging the data of the two Gigabit Ethernet ports to the host, and at the same time providing switching interrupts to the host. The host can receive and send data in real time through the interrupt. The host configures or monitors the external physical layer chip through the bus, and the configuration and monitoring data are connected to the physical layer chip through the MDIO interface.
Figure 3 TMS320C6678 network module structure
Figure 4 TMS320C6678 and 88E1111 interface TMS320C6678 and two 88E1111 interface circuit shown in Figure 4. TMS320C6678 adopts SGMII (SerialGigabitMediaIndependentInterface) interface, compatible with 10/100/1000M working mode. SGMII is a serial data transceiver method with fewer pin connections. As can be seen from Figure 4, there are actually only two pairs of differential lines for transmitting and receiving, which are respectively connected to the corresponding 88E1111 pins. The read and write clocks are implicitly transmitted on the data and are automatically recognized by the hardware without software involvement.
Figure 4 Interface of TMS320C6678 and 88E1111
MDIO and MDCLK are the data and clock of the internal MDIO module of TMS320C6678, which are used to establish connection between TMS320C6678 and 88E1111. TMS320C6678 can configure 88E1111 through this interface, or read the information of 88E1111. Since the MDIO module interface level of 88E1111 is 2.5V, and the MDIO module interface level of TMS320C6678 is 1.8V, a voltage conversion chip needs to be added between the two. This design uses PCA9306 to realize voltage conversion, and the interface circuit is shown in Figure 5. Show.
Figure 5 Voltage conversion circuit of MDIO interface
It should be noted that since there are two 88E111 chips, the MDIO and MDCLK pins are directly connected to the two chips, and MDIO can control 32 more physical layer chips, and the physical layer chip addresses are 1~32 respectively. The address configuration of 88E1111 is as follows shown in Figure 6.
Figure 6 Hardware configuration of 88E1111
Table 1 is the corresponding configuration information. According to Figure 6 and Table 1, it can be seen that the addresses of the 88E111 are 4 and 8 respectively.
Table 1 Configuration pin settings
4 Software Design
System software design includes hardware initialization, network configuration and data communication process. Figure 7 shows the work flow after TMS320C6678 is reset. First configure a network port, record its status and configure the second network port. As long as one of the two network ports is successfully configured, the EMAC module of the TMS320C6678 will be configured, and the sending and receiving buffer and sending and receiving tasks will be set for the successfully configured network port. After these configurations, the data transmission and reception of the network can be realized. It should be noted that in the user application, it is necessary to consider the failure of the network port configuration. For example, the user application transmits 1.2Gbps data in real time through dual network ports. If the configuration of one network port fails, the application should have a corresponding mechanism to reduce the real-time transmission rate to below 0.8Gbps (the actual transmission rate of a single network port may be lower than 0.8Gbps). The hardware system in this paper can actually transmit 1.5Gbps data without any other task overhead (errors are not considered during the transmission process, and no retransmission is performed).
Figure 7 Data communication process
Communication interfaces with transmission rates exceeding 1 Gbps generally use interface methods such as optical fiber, PCE, and PCIe. In this paper, the dual network port method can reduce equipment requirements and facilitate connection with existing equipment. The multi-core DSP is used to improve the working ability of the processor. In the process of ensuring the transmission of large-capacity data, the processor still has the ability to calculate the data. The dual network port design scheme can make up for the insufficient transmission rate of a single network port, and can reduce the hardware complexity of other interfaces, which is a useful supplement between the two. It has certain application value in embedded devices.
The “14th Five-Year Plan” period is a critical period for Beijing to implement the strategic positioning of the capital city, promote comprehensive innovation centered on scientific and technological innovation, and accelerate the construction of a global digital economy benchmark city. Beijing’s integrated circuit industry should play an unshirkable role as a vanguard and vanguard in terms of strategic bearing and basic support for the national scientific and technological innovation services and the construction of Beijing’s digital economy. However, during the “14th Five-Year Plan” period, Beijing’s integrated circuit industry is also facing many challenges and problems, such as the increasingly complex macro environment, increasing downward pressure on the industry, and insufficient power for collaborative innovation. This paper will put forward relevant suggestions and prospects for the development of Beijing’s integrated circuit industry during the “14th Five-Year Plan” period from various perspectives such as industrial characteristics, industrial positioning, and key measures: 1) Strategic focus and implementation of key integrated circuit product research projects; 2) The introduction of 3) Strengthen coordination and accelerate the cooperation between the central government and the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region; 4) Create an environment to further improve the development quality of Beijing’s integrated circuit industry.
The integrated circuit industry is a strategic, basic and leading industry supporting economic and social development, and it is also a new driving force leading the development of the digital economy and new infrastructure.At present, Sino-US economic and trade frictions and technological games have exacerbated the uncertainty of the global situation, and the strategic position of the integrated circuit industry has gradually improved, and it has become the main battlefield of international competition and the core focus of global attention..In the “Proposal of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Formulating the Fourteenth Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development and the Long-term Goals for 2035”, integrated circuits are written into it, and together with artificial intelligence, quantum information, etc. Key areas that need to “strengthen national strategic scientific and technological strength” during the Fourth Five-Year Plan period. Beijing has always been the central city of my country’s integrated circuit technology innovation, scientific and technological resources agglomeration, and industrial development hub. At present, it is a critical period for Beijing to implement the strategic positioning of the capital city, accelerate the construction of an international scientific and technological innovation center, and create a source of global original innovation. The leading role of the circuit industry to promote comprehensive innovation with scientific and technological innovation as the core. However, in recent years, Beijing’s integrated circuit industry still has many problems such as weak industrial development momentum, inactive innovation of small and medium-sized enterprises, weak mechanism innovation, and weak regional coordination progress. Therefore, it is of great significance to deeply understand and analyze the reality of the development of Beijing’s integrated circuit industry in recent years, to recognize the current situation and challenges faced by Beijing’s integrated circuit industry, and to do a good job in the industrial development orientation during the “14th Five-Year Plan” period. Based on the relevant statistics of the Beijing semiconductor Industry Association, this paper focuses on the research on the development status and problems of Beijing’s integrated circuit industry in recent years, and based on the differentiated positioning of regional development, the development focus and development of Beijing’s integrated circuit industry during the “14th Five-Year Plan” period. Actions are recommended.
2. The main progress of Beijing’s IC industry during the “13th Five-Year Plan” period
(1) The growth rate of industrial development has slowed down, and the domestic share has dropped sharply. During the “Thirteenth Five-Year Plan” period, the total amount and growth rate of Beijing’s integrated circuit industry experienced a turbulent development situation that first rose and then fell, but the overall scale still increased from 60.64 billion yuan in 2015 to more than 90 billion yuan in 2020. The compound growth rate is 8.4%. If the supporting industries such as equipment and materials are not considered, the compound annual growth rate of Beijing’s integrated circuit industry is 5.7%.Comparing the same period data of the national integrated circuit industry, From a total point of view, the proportion of Beijing’s integrated circuit industry in the country during the “13th Five-Year Plan” period has dropped from 16% to 8%. From the perspective of growth rate, Beijing’s growth rate of 5.7% is less than the national growth rate of 19.4%. 1/3 of %, see Table 1 for details. Therefore, whether it is industrial scale or growth rate, the development of Beijing’s integrated circuit industry is not optimistic.
(2) The industrial structure is not balanced enough, and the pillar links are seriously declining. The integrated circuit design industry has always been the backbone of Beijing’s integrated circuit industry, accounting for more than 50% of the entire industry for a long time. During the “13th Five-Year Plan” period, although the IC design industry’s contribution to the whole IC industry in Beijing still exceeds 50%, the growth rate of development has slowed down seriously, with an average annual compound growth rate of only 2.6%. Industry data for the same period, the domestic design industry growth rate was 22.7%, a difference of 10 times. At the same time, the pattern of Beijing, Shenzhen and Shanghai in the domestic integrated circuit design field has also been broken, and Beijing’s scale share in the domestic design industry has dropped from 32% to 13%. Thanks to the high production capacity and rapid development of SMIC (Beijing) and SMIC North, Beijing’s integrated circuit manufacturing industry has maintained a rapid growth of 28.1% compound annual growth rate in five years, which is higher than the national average for the same period. In the field of packaging and testing, due to the large demand for low-end labor in this field and the more sensitive cost control than design and manufacturing, limited by labor and cost constraints in Beijing, the output value of packaging and testing companies has declined rapidly in recent years. The average compound growth rate in five years is only -2.6%.
(3) It is heavily dependent on large enterprises, and the growth of small and medium-sized enterprises is weak. During the “Thirteenth Five-Year Plan” period, Beijing’s integrated circuit industry is extremely dependent on the development of several key large-scale enterprises. For example, the average annual growth rate from 2017 to 2018 exceeded 50% due to the rapid increase in Bitmain’s revenue that year due to the high price of Bitcoin; The rapid decline of the design industry in 2020 is mainly due to the relocation of the headquarters of two leading companies with a scale of over 10 billion yuan, Ziguang Zhanrui and OmniVision; performance of listed companies.The dependence of Beijing’s integrated circuit industry revenue on large enterprises also reflects the weak growth of more than 100 small and medium-sized enterprises. Nearly 50% of Beijing’s integrated circuit small and medium-sized enterprises have a growth rate of less than 10% from 2015 to 2020. There are no more than 5 IC companies in Beijing on the Growth Enterprise Market, and more than 15 in Shanghai.. The reasons for the inactive innovation of small and medium-sized IC SMEs in Beijing are that, on the one hand, there are many large enterprises, which may have a crowding-out effect on policies and financing for small and medium-sized enterprises in the upstream and downstream of the industrial chain; Realistic conditions such as cost and talent settlement are more restrictive, and there are few strong policies, which affect the enthusiasm of small and medium-sized enterprises to develop in Beijing.
(4) Actively serve the national strategy, and take responsibility for the domestic production of process equipment. During the “13th Five-Year Plan” period, Beijing actively promoted the national independent and controllable development strategy, and continuously improved its independent and self-research capabilities in key integrated circuit products and integrated circuit process equipment. Loongson’s high-performance processor products fully serve the party, government and military markets, and Zhaoyi’s innovative memory and 32-bit controller products have entered the stage of competition with international giants. Driven by the implementation of the 02 special project, SMIC (Beijing) and SMIC North will quadruple the localization verification efficiency of key integrated circuit equipment facing mainstream process nodes. The main equipment such as lithography machine, annealing/RTP and other major equipment has entered the advanced process node verification stage. Beijing has now realized the localization layout of all other key integrated circuit equipment except the lithography machine, which will continue to strengthen the integrated circuit industry for the “14th Five-Year Plan” period. The independent and controllable capabilities of the supply chain have laid a solid foundation.
(5) Major frontier innovations are active, and local transformation efficiency is not high. During the “Thirteenth Five-Year Plan” period, Beijing’s integrated circuit industry continued to see new achievements and breakthroughs in cutting-edge technological innovation.In terms of architecture, Tsinghua University ranks at the world’s leading level in innovative research on reconfigurable computing architecture, brain-like computing architecture and storage and computing integration., and is undergoing rapid industrialization exploration. In terms of memory, Tsinghua University, Beihang University, and the Institute of Microelectronics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences have continuously made breakthroughs in RRAM, SOT-MRAM devices and integrated technologies, aiming at major national strategic needs and international scientific and technological frontiers, providing new methods for my country’s memory industry to fight new technological revolutions with new ideas. In addition, major achievements in original innovation and disruptive cutting-edge technologies such as brain-computer interface chips, carbon-based integrated circuits, and quantum chips are also emerging. Although scientific research innovation is active, the transformation efficiency of these achievements in Beijing is not high. On the one hand, the degree of integration between scientific research subjects and market subjects is low. Innovation achievements tend to be transformed in other places with more favorable policy conditions.
(6) The regional synergy resistance is relatively large, and the application synergy is gradually strengthened. The coordinated development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei is a major national regional development strategy. During the “13th Five-Year Plan” period, significant achievements have been made in key areas such as transportation integration and ecological environment coordinated governance, but the progress in regional coordination of the integrated circuit industry is relatively slow. Mainly due to the obvious gap in the development level of the integrated circuit industry in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, including differences and obstacles in policies, infrastructure, supporting conditions, public services, etc. The transfer also encountered greater resistance. In terms of industrial chain coordination, because Beijing has a large number of central state-owned enterprises and headquarters companies such as Xiaomi, Lenovo, and Baidu, it has the ability to output scenarios and also has huge demand for integrated circuits, and has the basis for promoting the cooperation between the upstream and downstream of the integrated circuit industry. Beijing issued the “Work Plan for Accelerating the Construction of Application Scenarios and Promoting the High-quality Development of the Capital”, coordinating and promoting the construction of application scenarios in the city, actively guiding and promoting the cooperation of a large number of central state-owned enterprises, headquarters enterprises and Beijing integrated circuit enterprises, and increasing the city’s integrated circuit technology. and product application substitution in the enterprise supply chain.
3. The main challenges for the development of Beijing’s IC industry during the “14th Five-Year Plan” period
(1) Regional competition. A new round of regional competition and urban competition is increasingly reflected in the competition of high-end, sophisticated industries. After the “Proposal of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Formulating the Fourteenth Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development and the Long-term Goals for 2035”, “Science and Technology Self-Reliance and Self-improvement” as the strategic support for national development is placed at the top of each planning task. , Local governments have regarded the integrated circuit industry as the best choice for high-quality development and overtaking in corners, and began to actively compete for corporate resources and high-quality talents. Since 2017, the trend of Beijing’s key integrated circuit companies relocating to other provinces and cities has become more and more obvious, and three of the relocated companies are located in the top ten design companies in the country. Therefore, in the critical period for the country to build a strategic scientific and technological force, Beijing will face an increasingly fierce competition for resources in the integrated circuit industry from other cities.
(2) Talent supply. Due to factors such as difficult settlement, high cost of living, and uncompetitive salaries, more and more talents in the IC industry do not choose to develop in Beijing. According to the “China IC Industry Talents White Paper”, only 17.3% of employees choose Beijing as their preferred city, far lower than 39% in Shanghai.. In terms of the supply of IC graduates, Beijing is also facing a shortage of reserves. Due to the lack of integration of production and education, students lack engineering practice in colleges and universities, resulting in poor understanding of the industry. After graduation, they are easily tempted by high salaries to flow to other industries. According to the statistics of the Beijing Semiconductor Industry Association, less than 20% of graduates majoring in integrated circuits in Beijing are engaged in integrated circuit-related jobs after graduation, and there is a downward trend year after year. This shows that Beijing is already facing the supply of industrial talents and intellectual resources and the development of the industry. The challenge of severely mismatched requirements.
(3) Mechanism innovation. The world today is undergoing profound changes unseen in a century. The global spread of the new crown pneumonia epidemic has brought many uncertainties to the global cooperation of the integrated circuit industry.At the same time, my country is promoting the formation of a new development pattern with the domestic cycle as the main body and the domestic and international dual cycles promoting each other. As the basic industry of domestic scientific and technological innovation, integrated circuits must break through the bottleneck constraints of key core technologies and provide sufficient support for my country’s new infrastructure and digital economy. In order to promote the rapid and large-scale application and iterative upgrading of new technologies, it is urgent to establish an innovation system and mechanism that is compatible with this.. At present, Beijing’s integrated circuit industry is still facing the need to improve the overall innovation efficiency, and the effective mechanism for the integration of government, industry, academia, research and application is not yet clear. In the new round of global science and technology competition, we will take responsibility for the country and gain advantages.
(4) Capital financing. The establishment of the Science and Technology Innovation Board is a major measure for my country to promote the structural reform of the financial supply side, promote the deep integration of technology and capital, and lead the transformation of economic development to innovation-driven. Especially for the integrated circuit industry, it has a strong driving effect and demonstration effect.According to the statistics of Jiwei.com, as of the end of December 2020, 33 integrated circuit companies listed on the Science and Technology Innovation Board had raised a total of 97.052 billion yuan in their initial offerings, accounting for 35.34% of the total fundraising scale of listed companies on the Science and Technology Innovation Board. More than 50% of them achieved high growth performance with revenue growth of more than 20% in the first three quarters of 2020.Shanghai has also fully seized the opportunity of the establishment of the Science and Technology Innovation Board to accelerate the formation of a relatively complete set of “government fund guidance and leveraging-market-oriented investment operation of equity investment funds-promoting intellectual property pledge financing and other financial innovations-listing on the Science and Technology Innovation Board”. financial support system, Really opened up the “first mile” of financing for IC start-ups in the initial stage, and also gathered a large number of high-quality IC elite entrepreneurial teams. In contrast, Beijing has few innovative means in the integration of financial services and the integrated circuit industry, and it is difficult to support the further development of the industry in the future.
4. Reflections on the positioning of Beijing’s integrated circuit industry during the “14th Five-Year Plan” period
(1) Beijing’s integrated circuit industry should serve the country’s major strategy of independent innovation and technological self-reliance. The world today is going through great changes unseen in a century, and the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation is at a critical period. The capital Beijing is more closely related to the historical mission of the party and the country. It should serve the national independent innovation strategy, strengthen the national strategic scientific and technological strength, and speed up the formation of a group of Original achievements with global influence, create a source of global original innovation, and strive to achieve independent and controllable key core technologies. At present, the few “stuck neck” core technologies in the field of integrated circuits are difficult to achieve through scientific and technological innovation scattered in various regions. Instead, it is necessary to use the power of the whole country to explore the establishment of a new national system, the integration of government, industry, academia, research and application, and to promote the development of the socialist market economy. Under the conditions, it provides a strong guarantee to carry out research in the field of “stuck neck”, while Beijing has complete elements in all aspects of government, industry, academia, research and application, and has the foundation for development.
(2) Beijing’s integrated circuit industry must meet the requirements of Beijing’s “International Science and Technology Innovation Center”.Beijing, Shanghai and the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area are the three major scientific and technological innovation centers whose development plans or plans have been issued by the State Council in recent years. In terms of positioning, they have fully considered their respective resource endowments and advantages, reflecting the characteristics of differentiated and coordinated development of scientific and technological innovation centers.. Among them, Beijing is an “international science and technology innovation center”, and its main positioning is “original innovation”, “promoting the integration of science and technology and economy”, “leading the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei synergy” and “strengthening global open cooperation”. , original innovation and breakthroughs in areas urgently needed by the country”, “cooperating with central and local science and technology”, “implementing military-civilian integration”. In contrast, the positioning of Shanghai and Shenzhen’s science and technology innovation centers is quite different from that of Beijing. For example, Shanghai places more emphasis on “promoting comprehensive innovation and reform experiments, and carrying out enterprise-based, market-oriented institutional innovations that are systematic and systematic. “Exploration”, the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area pays more attention to “deepen Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao innovation cooperation and build an open regional collaborative innovation community”. Therefore, during the “14th Five-Year Plan” period, the positioning of Beijing to develop the integrated circuit industry should also meet the basic requirements of the State Council for Beijing to build an “international science and technology innovation center”, that is, Beijing should work hard on the original innovation of the integrated circuit industry and deploy integrated circuit applications in advance. Basic technology and international cutting-edge technology research, strengthen the cultivation of basic research talents in the field of integrated circuits, accelerate the formation of a batch of original achievements with global influence, and form a source of original innovation that leads the world. At the same time, Beijing should also fully combine the integrated circuit industry with the people’s livelihood economy and military-civilian integration applications, fully do a good job of central-local coordination, and actively serve the country’s major strategic needs and people’s livelihood and economic needs.
(3) Beijing’s integrated circuit industry should give full play to Beijing’s innovation resources and industrial synergy advantages. The integrated circuit industry chain is long and there are many subdivisions. It is unrealistic to develop comprehensively. Therefore, we must insist on “doing something, and not doing something”. It is necessary to fully consider how Beijing’s resource endowment and characteristic advantages can be better integrated with the industry in the face of the new round of scientific and technological revolution and the major opportunities of industrial transformation, how to face the world’s technological frontier, the main economic battlefield, the country’s major needs, and the People’s lives and health should find the focus and breakthrough point of Beijing, and how to contribute more “Beijing wisdom” in the country’s response to global challenges. Beijing is rich in intellectual resources and has scientific research advantages, so it is necessary to look forward to the next generation of disruptive frontier fields that may change the “competition track” and “rules of the game”, to seize the commanding heights and the right to speak; Beijing is the city with the largest number of new economic enterprises in the world , has the advantage of the scene, can give full play to the role of “scenario definition chip”, actively promote the combination of integrated circuits and scene innovation, and take the lead in the widespread application of innovative integrated circuit technology in the preparations for the Winter Olympics and the construction of the Tongzhou sub-center; Beijing state-owned enterprise The concentration of state-owned enterprises has the institutional advantage of “concentrating strength to do big things”, so it is necessary to make a positive example in building a new nationwide system to break through the “neck” technology of integrated circuits, break through more major national technical shortcomings, and ensure the supply chain of the industrial chain. Security and stability provide strong support.
5. The main directions and suggestions for the development of Beijing’s IC industry during the “14th Five-Year Plan” period
(1) Strategic focus, implement key integrated circuit product research projects.
The first is to fully combine Beijing’s existing industrial base and resources, select the country and Beijing’s superior forces that can mobilize or coordinate relevant fields, sort out the difficulties that restrict the development of the current integrated circuit industry, and focus on semiconductor equipment, key components, memory, EDA, and advanced packaging. The five “stuck neck” areas organized and implemented key core technology key projects and provided centralized support. And by accelerating the construction and cultivation of national laboratories, implementing major scientific and technological projects, and carrying out key core technology research, it will drive the exploration of relevant scientific basic theories, and realize the two-way promotion of basic research and technological innovation.
The second is to cultivate and develop strategic emerging industries around the urgent needs of improving people’s livelihood and promoting sustainable development in automobiles, industry, ultra-high-definition video, 5G, etc. , power semiconductors, new Display chips, and 5G core chips are five scenarios of “new infrastructure” products, making full use of Beijing’s scenario resources to create unique advantages that are conducive to the rapid and large-scale application of new technologies and iterative upgrades, release potential market demand, improve The high-end breakthrough of Beijing’s integrated circuit industry and its support and guarantee capabilities for basic industries and industrial chain coordination capabilities.
The third is to keenly grasp the development trend of scientific and technological innovation in the world, more efficiently integrate and utilize the advantages of Beijing’s integrated circuit field of intellectual science and education resources, and take the lead in strengthening the layout of quantum chips, brain-like and neuromorphic computing, blockchain chips, brain-computer interface chips, carbon The five cutting-edge “disruptive” fields of base chips have promoted a group of universities and institutes in Beijing to actively undertake major national scientific and technological innovation projects, and explored a long-term and stable combination of production, education and research, so that more cutting-edge innovations in integrated circuits can be transformed into real productivity.
(2) Introduce policies to increase support for talents and enterprise R&D.
The first is to plan and formulate special support policies for integrated circuit talents in Beijing. The Beijing IC industry is given a certain amount of quota for entering Beijing every year, which is used for the introduction of urgently needed talents and outstanding graduates by IC companies. Study the implementation of preferential personal income tax policies for overseas high-end and short-sufficiency IC talents in specific areas of Beijing. Accelerate the promotion of the first-level discipline construction of integrated circuits in colleges and universities in Beijing, provide financial support and special postgraduate quota support for six national-level demonstration microelectronics colleges in Beijing in conjunction with the Beijing Municipal Education Commission, and encourage colleges and universities to cooperate with enterprises to develop a special resource bank for integrated circuit talent training.
The second is to increase subsidies for key R&D expenditures for enterprises and major innovation platforms. Focus on supporting the tape-out and mask production of Beijing integrated circuit design enterprises, and give priority to financial support for major industrialization projects with great strategic significance, independent intellectual property rights, and at the international advanced level. Support leading enterprises in Beijing to cooperate with universities, institutes, new R&D institutions and other innovative entities to develop major integrated circuit technology innovation platforms and common technology service platforms, build a core technology research system, and focus on conquering domestic integrated circuit key “stuck neck” products and major shortcomings In this field, it is suggested to support it through government equity investment, loan interest discount, government subsidies and other means.
(3) Strengthen coordination and accelerate the cooperation between the central government and the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region.
The first is to promote the application scenarios of central enterprises to cooperate with integrated circuit enterprises in Beijing. In-depth docking with central enterprises in Beijing, focusing on the technical needs of energy, electric power, communication, high-speed rail, aviation and other fields, jointly organize and condense a batch of domestic chip application demonstration projects with large scale and strong demonstration and driving effect, and promote the active participation of Beijing integrated circuit enterprises Central enterprise application scenario construction, to create a complete localized industrial chain and ecological chain.
The second is to accelerate the linkage and cooperation between Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei in key integrated circuits.Explore the promotion of multi-faceted cooperation between Beijing Shunyi, Hebei and Tianjin industrial chains in the field of the third-generation semiconductor industry, establish a policy linkage mechanism to support the compound semiconductor industry in the three regions, give priority to supporting key projects of collaborative cooperation, and jointly cultivate and support regional leading enterprises and supporting industries Chain, to promote the upstream and downstream synergy of the regional compound semiconductor industry chain and the optimization of industrial layout[2,11].
(4) Create an environment to further improve the development quality of Beijing’s integrated circuit industry.
The first is to explore financial innovation to help the development of Beijing’s integrated circuit industry. Expand the scale of equity investment funds for the development of the integrated circuit industry in Beijing, and increase financial support for the transformation of major scientific research achievements in the integrated circuit field, innovation and entrepreneurship, mergers and acquisitions, and other aspects. Support the promotion of innovation in financing methods by giving risk compensation and other methods, and support enterprises to raise funds through diversified methods such as financial leasing, credit loans, and equity-pledged loans. Deepen cooperation with the Shanghai Stock Exchange, Shanghai Equity Custody Trading Center, Shenzhen Stock Exchange, etc., increase the training guidance and financial incentives for the listing and listing of integrated circuit technology innovation enterprises, and accelerate the cultivation of a number of emerging integrated circuit enterprises to land at home and abroad capital market.
The second is to make every effort to create a world-class business environment. Give full play to the role of industry organizations such as the Beijing Semiconductor Industry Association, focus on the pain points, blocking points and key points of industrial development, improve the convenience and standardization of industrial services, create a good industrial environment for industrial development, enhance the sense of gain and satisfaction of enterprises, and fully Stimulate the vitality of market entities, build an ecological highland of integrated circuit industry with global competitive advantages, and provide a strong soft environment competitiveness for Beijing to build an international science and technology innovation center with high quality.
Recently, the research group of Professor Wang Xinran from the School of Electronic Science and Engineering of Nanjing University, in cooperation with Tianma Microelectronics Co., Ltd. and other units, has made breakthroughs in the key technologies of two-dimensional semiconductor single crystal preparation and heterogeneous integration, which will provide future development of Micro-LED Display technology. a new technical route. At the same time, two-dimensional semiconductors provide a possible technical direction for the continuation of Moore’s Law from two dimensions, horizontal and vertical, and are of great significance to promoting the development of the semiconductor industry.
Continuing Moore’s Law from both horizontal and vertical dimensions
Previously, TSMC made a key breakthrough in 1nm technology, which attracted widespread attention in the industry. It is understood that this key technological breakthrough lies in the use of semi-metal bismuth (Bi) as the contact electrode of the two-dimensional material, which can greatly reduce the resistance and increase the current, making its performance almost the same as that of silicon, which will help to achieve the challenge of 1nm semiconductor in the future. This has also brought two-dimensional semiconductor technology into people’s eyes again. In breaking through 1nm technology, two-dimensional semiconductor technology has also been recognized by the foundry giant TSMC. Today, two-dimensional semiconductor technology is regarded as one of the important technologies to continue Moore’s Law.
Wang Xinran, a professor at the School of electronic Science and Engineering of Nanjing University, introduced to a reporter from China Electronics News that two-dimensional semiconductors may continue Moore’s Law from both horizontal and vertical dimensions in the future, mainly due to the thinness of two-dimensional semiconductors and the ability to stack vertically. Characteristics.
Wang Xinran introduced that, first of all, the most notable feature of a single-layer two-dimensional semiconductor is its thinness, which can be as thin as one atom, which is also the limit of thickness in nature. The biggest advantage brought by this thinness is that under more advanced technology nodes, such as 1nm chips, two-dimensional semiconductor chips will not have power consumption problems like silicon-based chips, and then after silicon-based semiconductors reach the physical limit , 2D semiconductor technology can also ensure that integrated circuit technology continues to maintain costs and improve performance according to Mr. Moore’s forecast.
Secondly, another remarkable feature of two-dimensional semiconductors is that they can be stacked vertically. The advantage of stacking is that in the same area, although the size of the device can no longer be reduced, the vertical space can be used to make more devices, and the integration and performance can also be improved. , which is also an idea of continuing Moore’s Law. “In fact, traditional semiconductors can also be stacked, but the preparation of these materials requires high temperature, and often the high-temperature process of the upper layer will destroy the lower layer, while the stacking of two-dimensional semiconductors is realized at low temperature, and the preparation of the upper layer of devices will not Damage the lower layer and make a good circuit.” Wang Xinran told a reporter from China Electronics News.
May bring disruptive breakthroughs to the display field
Qin Feng, deputy general manager of the Innovation Center of Tianma Microelectronics Co., Ltd., believes that the breakthrough in the key technology of two-dimensional semiconductors by Nanjing University has given the display industry a key to open the door to a new field. He believes that in this research, two-dimensional semiconductor thin film transistors have broken through the performance bottleneck of traditional semiconductor drive circuits, enabling Micro-LED displays to have the characteristics of high resolution, high brightness, and high response speed at the same time, and can meet the needs of ultra-high Demand for microdisplays at high resolutions.
“We noticed that two-dimensional semiconductors have extremely high flexibility and transparency, which may bring disruptive products to future displays. For example, the current curved screen can only achieve partial bending. If two-dimensional semiconductors are used to drive, maybe in the future We can fold the screen like origami. In addition, this research has also broken through a new 2D semiconductor 3D integration technology, which has the potential to bring huge costs compared to the current mainstream technology of Micro-LED. The decline is of far-reaching significance for the promotion of Micro-LED to the consumer market.” Qin Feng told a reporter from China Electronics News.
Zhou Peng, deputy dean of the School of Microelectronics of Fudan University, introduced to the reporter of China Electronics News that the technical breakthrough of the Nanjing University team this time mainly lies in the artificial construction of “atomic terraces” by changing the direction of the atomic steps on the surface of sapphire. For the first time, the epitaxial growth of a 2-inch two-dimensional single crystal film was realized, and the transistor prepared based on this epitaxial material has become one of the highest comprehensive performances reported internationally. The technology has good universality and lays the foundation for the application of two-dimensional semiconductors in the field of integrated circuits.
It is understood that the breakthrough of large-area single crystal materials provides an opportunity for the application of two-dimensional semiconductors. Based on the accumulation of years of research on third-generation semiconductors and the latest two-dimensional semiconductor single crystal solutions, the Nanjing University team proposed a MoS2 thin film transistor based on Driver circuit, monolithic integrated ultra-high resolution Micro-LED display technology solution.
“We have known from the development of silicon-based chips that the growth of single crystals is the most basic requirement of semiconductor integrated circuits, and the growth of two-dimensional semiconductor single crystals has been a problem that has plagued the industry, academia and research circles for a long time. The crystal nucleation and growth mechanism started to be studied, and a breakthrough was made in the single crystal growth theory, which was verified at the laboratory level, and also pointed out the development direction for the preparation of single crystal materials, paving the way for future applications. The application of two-dimensional semiconductor technology in display shows the great potential of two-dimensional semiconductors in the back-end integration and 3D integration, which have attracted much attention, and also because the key technology in the direction of single crystal growth has been reserved.” Wang Xinran Speaking to a reporter from China Electronics News.
Not to replace silicon but to complement silicon technology
Although two-dimensional semiconductor technology is developing in full swing, there are still many technical bottlenecks to be broken through, and the industrial application of two-dimensional semiconductors still takes time.
According to Wang Xinran, thanks to the diligent efforts of researchers all over the world, two-dimensional semiconductors have achieved leap-forward development in just ten years. Whether it is materials, devices, or integrated circuits themselves, they have all played a role in promoting development. However, challenges also exist at all levels. For example, from the perspective of materials, Nanjing University has achieved the growth of 2-inch single crystals this time, pointing out the direction for larger-sized single crystals, but currently silicon single crystal wafers have been produced. At 12 inches and beyond, 2D semiconductors are still a long way off in this regard.
In addition, there is still a huge gap in the performance, uniformity, and reliability required by the device size from the expected 1nm node, and the device model, structure, and process have not formed a definite solution. 2D material integrated circuit design, architecture design, and demonstration of prototype chips are still at a relatively early stage.
“After all, silicon-based semiconductors are still at the top of the technology pyramid, and in the next 3-5 years, silicon-based semiconductors will still have a lot of room for improvement through optimization of materials, structures, and architectures. Therefore, silicon-based semiconductors still occupy performance, power consumption, and size. This also reduces the urgency of the industry. At the same time, the limit of silicon-based has also been generally recognized by the industry, which is also an important reason for industry giants such as Intel and TSMC to start 2D semiconductor research in the past year or two. The reason.” Wang Xinran told a reporter from China Electronics News.
In addition, Zhou Peng believes that the opportunity for two-dimensional semiconductors is not to replace silicon, but to become a complement to silicon technology. “For a long time, the current silicon-based microelectronics process has had huge investment and long-term development, and it has become mature, and two-dimensional semiconductors require many unconventional processes. In the foreseeable future, two-dimensional semiconductors will not be It may completely replace silicon, and the opportunity for two-dimensional semiconductors should be used as a complementary technology to silicon technology to alleviate the challenges faced by silicon-based devices.” Zhou Peng told the “China Electronics News” reporter.
A few days ago, according to media reports, industry insiders said that Toshiba will increase some products in 2022, with an English price increase letter attached. The price increase letter shows that on November 16, Toshiba told customers that the photocoupler will officially increase the price in January 2022.
As for the reasons for the price increase, Toshiba said that due to rising prices of raw materials, logistics and other supply chains, the company is under increasing pressure on profitability. Toshiba Electroniccomponents Co., Ltd. has been unable to absorb the increasing costs by itself, so Toshiba had to make a decision to increase prices.
It is reported that optocouplers are the most commonly used isolation devices in power switching circuits, with a wide range of applications; due to the rapid development of wearable devices, Netcom products, smart home appliances, consumer electronics, electric vehicles, cloud servers and 5G base stations, demand is rapid. growing up.
Industry analysts believe that in the case of a substantial increase in market demand, from the fourth quarter of 2020, the demand for optocouplers and related components has begun to increase sharply, with an increase of 10-30% since the beginning of this year, at least double digits.
In fact, as early as the first half of this year, Toshiba issued an increase notice to customers, the notice stated that due to the impact of the new crown pneumonia, semiconductor wafers, foundry and packaging are all facing the problem of shortage of raw materials and increased costs, Toshiba The cost of the product is also increasing, therefore, it was decided to increase the price of the product on June 1, 2021.
(The price increase letter issued by Toshiba in the first half of this year)
Tonight, Meizu announced that the Flyme epidemic community query function was officially launched.
According to reports, at present, this function has covered 283 cities in nearly 30 provinces, with a total of 9,229 confirmed case activity trajectory maps. The query path for Meizu users is Aicy Overview – Epidemic Card – Epidemic Community. Non-Meizu users can click this link to jump to https://ncov.flyme.cn/meizu/quickapp/index.html?s=weibo#/.
Previously, Meizu announced that it would donate 300,000 yuan to Wuhan Charity Federation for local prevention and control of emergency supplies. At the same time, the company is also actively contacting the medical and nursing organizations on the front line, trying to provide them with other assistance within its capacity.
As for the Meizu 17, which is concerned by the outside world, it is going all out to overcome all difficulties and preparing to meet you this spring.
In addition to the expected Qualcomm Snapdragon 865 flagship platform, Huang Zhang previously revealed that the machine is an absolute flagship in terms of performance and network experience. In addition, there will be new innovative explorations in materials, images, experience, etc.
“The 17 series will definitely be a good-looking and easy-to-use product belonging to Meiyou,” Huang Zhang said.
The Korea Times reported on May 8 that South Korea’s major overseas auto brands are struggling under the influence of persistent chip shortages, poor sales and union management conflicts. It is reported that Renault Samsung, GM Korea and SsangYong Motors are considering giving up their business in South Korea.
Renault Samsung’s April sales fell 28.6% year-on-year. Nine rounds of negotiations between the company’s management and the union have failed to narrow their differences over 2020 wages.
Renault Samsung CEO Dominic? “If we miss this opportunity, our future will become more uncertain,” Dominique Signora said in a statement. “In the past, we may have had another chance, but this time is different.” It also hints that Renault Samsung may withdraw from the Korean market if the current bad situation is not resolved.
A source said the company’s chief executive made a decision on Tuesday to halt operations in South Korea. In response to the decision, the union of Renault Samsung responded with a strike.
“We will continue to strike until management reverses the decision to close the factory,” a union representative said.
Industry watchers pointed out that if management does not reverse the decision to temporarily close the only factory at Renault Samsung, the company’s union will go on strike indefinitely.
In addition, South Korea’s General Motors is also facing pressure from the union, which is demanding a monthly salary increase of 99,000 won (570 yuan) and a 10 million won bonus this year.
However, South Korea’s General Motors suffered an operating loss of 316.9 billion won (1.825 billion yuan) last year, and lost 25,000 vehicles due to the strike. At the same time, car sales in April this year fell 25.4% year-on-year.
SsangYong Motors is in the midst of a major restructuring after its parent company, Indian automaker Mahindra & Mahindra, stopped capital injection. It is reported that the company has laid off 30% of its executives, or 10 of the 33 people left.
The company’s April sales fell 35.7% from a year earlier. It is reported that Mahindra plans to exit the loss-making joint venture and relinquish control of Ssangyong Motors. Mahindra currently holds a 75% stake in Ssangyong Motors.
“We oppose restructuring that focuses on layoffs. If jobs are secured, we will cooperate with restructuring measures,” SsangYong Automobile Alliance said.
Amid chip supply shortage, South Korea lowers chip makers tax, boosts auto chip production budget
On April 15, South Korea’s Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy informed President Moon Jae-in of a series of stimulus measures to support the country’s chip industry, which accounts for the largest share of South Korea’s exports. accounted for 20%. In addition, the country will publish a separate outline to support the electric vehicle battery business in the first half of this year.
Previously, the South Korean chip industry had asked the government to exempt investment in chip R&D and manufacturing facilities from a 50% tax rate, thus giving South Korean chip companies the same level of playing field as other global players. The United States has decided to provide a 40% tax break on investments related to chip manufacturing facilities. Europe has also announced a $50 billion investment plan, and China has also introduced a corporate tax-free program. By contrast, prior to the new plan, South Korea offered a 20 percent tax cut for companies’ newly developed original technology, but only a 3 percent tax cut for facility investment.
South Korea will also promote technological development of automotive chips and address supply shortages through links between future vehicles and the semiconductor industry. The country will announce its comprehensive measures within the first half of this year.
On April 16, South Korean Finance Minister Hong Nam-ki said that the government will significantly increase the budget to provide support for the automotive chip industry and find projects that can be commercialized in the short term to solve the supply problem.
South Korea will also introduce corresponding measures to cultivate the labor force required by the battery industry and prevent the outflow of resources. The country will also set up a dedicated fund to help small and medium-sized companies in the battery industry grow. In addition, South Korea will support about 9,000 auto parts makers as they transition their businesses to future vehicle technologies.
How will the future “smart transportation” drive the future? The 2020 Hunan (Changsha) International Smart Transportation and Intelligent Connected New Energy Automobile Industry Expo opened at the Changsha International Convention and Exhibition Center on the 16th. The 30,000-square-meter exhibition showcases the The latest achievements in scientific and technological innovation in the field.
As a leading industry and an important foundation for national economic and social development, the transportation industry is a key strategic industry. The theme of this expo is “Intelligent Technology Creates Life, Wisdom Drives the Future”. Deep fusion of application scenarios.
The expo has set up five exhibition sections: smart transportation engineering technology and facilities, smart transportation application scenarios and achievements Display, intelligent networked vehicles and core technologies, new energy vehicles and parts and accessories, general aviation and water transportation technology and facilities. More than 100 companies including Huawei, Xiangxing Wisdom, Lianzhi Technology, and Zhuzhou CRRC Times participated in the exhibition.
Chen Qingquan, academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering and founding chairman of the World Electric Vehicle Association, said that facing the problems of air pollution, traffic congestion and traffic casualties caused by the increasing number of motor vehicles, the development of green smart transportation is an inevitable direction for high-quality economic and social development.
New energy and intelligent connected vehicle industry chain It is one of the 20 emerging advantageous industrial chains in Hunan Province. According to the dispatching situation, in 2018, there were 91,784 new energy vehicles in Hunan Province, an increase of 80.84%, accounting for 7.23% of the total output in China; in the first three quarters of 2019, the number of new energy vehicles produced in Hunan Province reached nearly 150,000, a year-on-year increase It increased by more than 210%, and the proportion of the total production of new energy vehicles in the country jumped to 17% during the same period.
“Smart transportation is the commanding height of China’s future strategy to seize the transportation industry. The development of smart transportation is related to the future and development, and plays a pivotal position in Hunan’s industrial layout.” Zhang Dafang, vice chairman of the Hunan Provincial Political Consultative Conference, pointed out that Hunan is currently in the field of intelligent network connection, A series of achievements have been made in the field of smart transportation such as new energy vehicles, forming a relatively complete industrial chain foundation.
It is reported that this three-day expo will hold more than 10 supporting activities such as the 2020 Smart Transportation Technology Development Forum and the 2020 Hunan (Changsha) Intelligent Connected Vehicle Industry Development Forum.
The current running score data ranking of the geekbench website
Sina Digital News on the morning of November 8th, Intel launched its first 12th-generation Core processor “Alder Lake” last week, and some foreign media compared it with Apple’s latest chip.
First of all, this is not a fair test, because the 12th-generation Core is the processor for desktop computers (there is no mobile version yet), but as the strongest voice of the traditional camp, people are still happy to see it with the latest products of Apple’s M series comparison.
Geekbench 5 benchmark results for the Core i9-12900K show that the processor is nearly 1.5 times faster than the M1 Pro and M1 Max in terms of multi-core performance. Specifically, the Core i9 processors have averaged around 18,500 multi-core scores so far, while the M1 Pro and M1 Max have averaged around 12,500.
AnandTech shared additional benchmarks to gain further insight into performance.
While the Core i9 processor is much faster than the M1 Pro and M1 Max, it also consumes significantly more power than Apple’s chips, hitting 125W at base frequency and up to 241W at Turbo.
Intel’s 12th-gen Core i7-12700K also appeared to be faster than the M1 Pro and M1 Max in the Geekbench 5 results, but was also more power-hungry.
This result is in line with expectations. Although Apple advertises that its chip is powerful, it also emphasizes that its “energy efficiency ratio” is high, that is, it does more things with the same energy consumption, which further reduces heat generation. And because of Apple’s closed ecology, these chips can only serve Apple products.
Intel is expected to release 12th-generation Core processors for laptops in early 2022, including the high-end Core i9-12900K, a 16-core chip with eight performance cores and eight efficiency cores. Apple is also expected to use its own M1 Pro and M1 Max chips for future iMac product lines. The battle between the two will continue in the future.